Karet Alam Natural Rubber

Management Rubber Plantation (Chairil Anwar) 

  1.  1. Rubber Cultivation Technology 
    To build the necessary rubber plantation management and technology
    rubber cultivation which includes, the following activities:
    • Terms grow rubber plants
    • Clone-clone rubber recommendation
    • Planting materials / seeds
    • The pre-planting and planting
    • Maintenance of crop: weed control, fertilizing and
    disease control
    • Tapping / harvest

    Basically the rubber plant requirements against the need to support the growth of climatic conditions and soil conditions as the growth media.
     Climate
    Areas suitable for rubber is in the zone between 150 South Latitude 150 North latitude. Outside the recommended location, the growth of rubber plants is not optimal.

    Rainfall
    Rubber plants require optimum rainfall between 2500 mm to 4000 mm / year, with rainy days ranges from 100 sd. 150 HH / year. However, if the frequent rain in the morning, the production will be reduced.

    Geographic Location 
    Basically the rubber plants grow optimally at low altitude with an altitude of 200 m above sea level. Altitude> 600 m from the sea surface is not suitable for growing rubber trees. The optimal temperature required ranges from 25C to 35C (77 F to 95 F).

    Wind
    Windy area is not recommended for rubber plantation

    Soil  Recommended  pH is 3, 0 -8.0.
    Properties
    land suitable for rubber trees are among others:

    - up to 100 cm, there were no rocks and
    rock layers
    - Adequate drainage
    - Texture of soil crusts, and can withstand water 
    - The structure consists of 35% clay and 30% sand
    - Peaty soil no more than 20 cm
    - Reaction soil with pH 4.5 - pH 6.5
    - The slope of the land <16% and
    - Surface soil water <100 cm.)

 

  1. 2. Recommended seed for 2006-2010 IRR 5, IRR32, IRR39, IRR42, IRR104, IRR112, and IRR118)   
  2. 3.  Planting Material
    The most important thing in the planting of rubber is the seed / planting material, in this case a good planting material is derived from rubber trees grafting. Preparation of planting materials done at least 1.5 years prior to planting.

    In terms of planting materials there are three components that need to be prepared,
    namely: rootstock , entres / scions (budwood), and grafting
    (Grafting) in preparation of planting materials.

    Preparation rootstock is an activity to obtain planting materials that have a strong root system and good nutrient absorption. To achieve these conditions, required the development of seedling rootstock that meets the technical requirements which included the preparation of land for nurseries, seed treatment, germination, seedling planting, and maintenance of plants in the nursery business

    To get the planting material needed a good result of grafting a good entres, basically the eyes of grafting can be drawn from two sources, namely in the form of a branch of the seed garden  . Of the two kinds of grafting this spring entres should be selected from pure seed garden, because seed branches will produce plants that growth is not uniform and low grafting success.

    Grafting is one way of propagation of plants is done by pressing the eye entres than one type of crop to plant in order to obtain superior properties. From the results will be obtained by grafting the rubber planting materials of superior form of sleep eye stum, stum mini, seedlings in polybag, or high stum. For rubber, which is the subject of this entres top of the plant and is characterized by the clones used as the upper trunk. Planting rubber seedlings to be on time to avoid the high mortality rate in the field.

    Appropriate planting time is during the rainy season. Also important to provide manpower for the activities for making planting holes, dismantling, transporting, and planting seeds. Seedlings should be planted has been dismantled and the grace period is allowed at least one night after discharging the seedlings.)

 

  1. 4.       Preparing for Plantation 

Land Clearing Land to grow rubber trees must be cleaned from the Remains of plants, cut down the results of logging, land clearing so That Should the schedule be adjusted with the planting schedule.
This includes land clearing activities
(A) pruning shrubs, (b) cutting of trees, (c) and perecanaan
pruning, (d) Clearing the root wood, (e) stacking and cleaning.


The clearing of land settlement was carried out in blocks, the arrangement of the garden walk, and the arrangement of drainage channels in the plantation.Arrangement of the blocks. Garden land rossed by the smallest units and Arranged into blocks of size 10 -20 ha, Every Few blocks together into one stretch of Which will from have relatively the Same Age.

 

Road Arrangement
The road network Should be organized and conducted on new plant construction time (year 0) and was associated with the settlement of land into blokblok plants. Construction of roads in the area Should have a maximum carry distance as far as 200 m. If possible make the entire network heaped / connected, so That the overall pattern is an effective road network.

Drainage Channel Setup

After land clearing and road arrangements are carried out, then the creation and the restructuring of the drainage channel (drain field) is carried out. Adjusted cross-sectional area with rainfall at a particular time unit, and consider factors infiltration and evaporation. The entire field of drain the excess water is flowed on to the next shelter and poured down the drainage into.

Land Preparation

Steps:
Weed Clearing
Soil Treatment
With the goal of cost efficiency, processing of land for rubber cultivation Can be carried out with minimum tillage systems, namely by making the bolt Between the rows of one meter wide by 20 cm to hoe.
Terracing
In the area of land That has a slope of more than 50 required terracing / contour plots of the system and into the slope about 150. This is intended to Prevent the possibility of erosion by rain water. Terrace width is ranged from 1:25 to 1:50 cm, depending on the degree of slope. Each of 60-10 for trees (depending on the degree of slope of 11 land) must be built the fort in order to Prevent erosion on-the surface of the map.
Watering
a) In the area of land That is relatively flat slope (the slope Between 00-80) Is spacing 7 mx 3 m (= 476 holes / ha) form straight lines follow the direction East - West Is 7 m and the direction North - South is 3 m.

b) Hilly On bumpy or land area (slopes of 8% - 15%) spacing of eight mx 2, 5 m (= 500 holes / ha) on the terrace Which is set to be continued Every 1:25 m (contour planting) . Marker materials Can use thin bamboo strips with a size of 20 cm - 30 cm. Each point at a place marker represents erection digging holes for plants.
Preparing place for rubber seed
Hole size for the seed is made from 60 cm x 60 cm in the upper part, and 40 cm x 40 cm, bottom depth 60 cm. At the time of a hollow, the upper soil (top soil) is placed on the left and bottom soil (sub soil) placed on the right).

Plant holes left for a month before the rubber seedlings Crops.
Planting Soil Cover beans (legume cover crops = LCC)
Ground cover planting beans this is done before the start of rubber seedlings Crops in order to avoid the possibility of erosion, improve soil physical and chemical structure, reducing pengupan water, and to restrict weed growth.
LCC Composition for Each hectare of land is 4 pounds. Pueraria javanica, 6 kg Colopogonium mucunoides, and 4 kg of Centrosema pubescens, Which Is mixed into the 5 kg of rock phosphate (PR) as a medium. Also it is advisable to insert Colopogonium caerulem resistant shade (shade Resistance) seed ex or ex Steck noted noted noted in small polybags of 1000 seedlings / hectare. Bean plants Maintained by weeding, fertilizing with 200 kg per hectare and RP, spread way Above average crop beans.
Seeds
Recommended: high yielding, responsive to the stimulation results, resistance against pest and disease attacks the leaves and That bark, and good recovery of skin wounds. Conditions must be met Trust seedlings ready for planting acres Among Others:
- Seedlings in polybags rubber Which has an umbrella in half.
- Eye grafting really well and has started to germinate
- Roots grow well and have steep lateral roots
- Free from fungal root disease (White Root fungus)
Estimation
With spacing of 7 x 3 m (for sloping ground), rubber plants seeds needed for planting as many as 476 seeds, and reserve for stitching as many as 47th (10%) so for Every hectare garden That is needed as much as 523 rubber seedling stems.

Cultivation
In general rubber planting in the field that is carried out in the rainy season Between September to December rainfall is sufficient. At planting, the soil covering the hole using top soil mixed with fertilizer RP 100 grams per hole, in Addition to 50 grams of fertilization with urea and SP - 36 of 100 grams as basal fertilizer.